Elektros srovės smūgis. Žaibo smūgis

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Elektros srovės smūgis. Žaibo smūgis

2013-07-31 00:00

Ištikus elektros smūgiui – pažeidžiami kūno audiniai ir gyvybiškai svarbūs organai – širdis, smegenys. Dėl elektros srovės poveikio gali sutrikti širdies veikla, prasidėti kvėpavimo raumenų paralyžius, žmogus gali mirti.
 
Požymiai
Išoriniai sužalojimai – tai nudegimai, elektros srovės žymės (dažniausiai tai pilkšvos ar gelsvos spalvos odoje ar viršutiniuose audiniuose atsirandančios dėmės, kartais sukietėjusios, gali atitikti prisilietimo ar srovę turėjusio kūno formą), odos metalizacija (elektros lanko išlydytos smulkios metalo dalelės įsiskverbia į odos gilumą, oda tampa šiurkšti, nukentėjęs jaučia esant svetimkūnius), elektros oftalmija (tai akių apvalkalų uždegimas nuo ultravioletinių spindulių srauto, kuriuos gali sukelti elektros laukas trumpo sujungimo atveju ar atliekant suvirinimo darbus, požymiai – ašarojančios akys, pūlingos išskyros iš akių, akių vokų spazmai, skausmas akyse).
 
Pirmoji pagalba
1. Reikia būti atsargiems. Nesiliesti prie elektros šaltinio, neliesti nukentėjusiojo, jei nesate įsitikinę, kad tai saugu!
2. Nutraukti žalingą elektros poveikį: išjungti elektros srovę jungikliu elektros skydinėje, nustumti nukentėjusįjį nuo elektros srovės šaltinio srovei nelaidžiu daiktu (pvz., sausa lazda).
3. Kviesti greitąją pagalbą.
4. Kol atvyks gydytojas, būtina teikti pagalbą atsižvelgiant į sužalojimo pobūdį. Įsitikinus, kad nukentėjusiojo nebekrato elektros srovė ir galima prie jo saugiai prieiti, kelis kartus garsiai jį pašaukti. Jei žmogus neatsiliepia, patikrinti, ar jis kvėpuoja – ar kilnojasi jo krūtinė, ar jaučiamas kvėpavimas pridėjus ausį prie jo nosies. Jei žmogaus kvėpavimas silpnas ar jis visai nekvėpuoja, patikrinti jo pulsą. Jei pulso nėra, daryti dirbtinį kvėpavimą bei širdies masažą.
5. Jei yra nudegimų, apnuoginti nudegusią vietą, uždengti steriliu tvarsčiu, sutvarstyti. 6. Malšinti skausmą.
 
Žinotina
Prie nukentėjusiojo, veikiamo aukštos įtampos elektros srovės (elektros srovės perdavimo linijos, transformatoriai) negalima nei artintis, nei jo liesti – elektros srovė veikia kelių metrų atstumu, lyjant – keliolikos metrų. Nemėginti gelbėti – tai pavojinga jūsų gyvybei. Praneškite elektros tinklų tarnybai.
Dėl išorinių žmogaus kūno sužalojimų (nudegimų, odos metalizacijos ir t.t.) žmogus retai miršta. Žymiai pavojingesni elektros smūgiai, t.y. vidinių organų pakenkimai, kai žmogų dažnai ištinka mirtis, ypač pavėluotai ar neteisingai suteikiant pirmąją pagalbą. Labai svarbu, kad nukentėjęs būtų kaip galima greičiau atpalaiduotas nuo elektros srovės ir nedelsiant pradėtas teisingais metodais gaivinti. Kuo ilgiau srovė teka per žmogaus kūną, tuo labiau žmogui gali būti pakenkta.
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